Grammar For You


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Aside: Grammar For You

Grammar Bites
Prepositions for:
o   Annoyed
1.     She was extremely annoyed about the damage to her front door.
2.     I was annoyed at him for arriving late.
3.     They were annoyed by his persistent coughing.
4.     He annoys her in church by praying aloud.
5.     She was annoying him with her endless questions.
6.     I was annoyed with him for bringing up the subject.

Prepositions for:
o   upset 
1.     I was feeling upset by the whole experience.
2.     There's no point in getting all upset about it.
3.     I try not to let her make me upset.
4.     She was too upset to speak to him.
5.     I'm upset that you didn't call.

6.     I was so upset with him, I didn't call him for two weeks.

(“Such as” from English Grammar Today © Cambridge University Press.)

Compare with or compare to?

In general terms, either preposition is correct, but the choice depends partly on meaning and partly on grammar. In addition, American English generally prefers to when there is a choice, whereas in British English the two different constructions are more evenly spread.
Let’s look first at the meaning of each phrase. To compare can be defined broadly as ‘to estimate the similarity or difference between things’. For example:
Individual schools compared their facilities with those of others in the area.
It is difficult to compare our results to studies conducted in the United States.
In this meaning, either preposition can be used.
However, when compare is used to say that one thing resembles another, or to make an analogy between two different things, to is obligatory:
Her novel was compared to the work of Daniel Defoe.
He compared children to young trees, both still growing and able to be shaped.

A Shakespearean example

One of the most famous lines in English poetry, from Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18, uses compare to in this way:
Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Shakespeare is likening the addressee to a summer’s day, even though in the end he shows his beloved to be lovelier than such a day.

Intransitive uses

British English prefers with when compare is used intransitively, because similarities are being evaluated:
His achievements do not compare with those of A. J. Ayer.
No other English painter can compare with Sutherland in the subtlety of his vision.
In American English, however, compare to is possible and slightly more frequent:
None of those birds compare to L.A. pigeons.
No, today’s calamities don't compare to the Great Depression or even to the agricultural troubles of the 1980s.

Compared to...

When the past participle compared introduces a subordinate clause or phrase, the preposition is either to or with, although here usage is moving in favour of to:
This was a modest sum compared to what other people spent.
Compared to physics and astronomy, cosmology is a young science.
However, compared with the USA and Japan, Europe contains a group of separate nation states.

Comparable, comparison

Comparable is used with to or with in line with the previous discussion, with a marked preference in current usage for to:
We find ourselves in a situation comparable to mediaeval times.
Social mobility is, in fact, comparable with most countries in Europe.
Comparison as the noun equivalent of compare can be followed by either with or to:
Poussin’s approach bears closest comparison to Michelangelo’s.
Prices for real estate in Tbilisi cannot stand comparison with Western capitals or indeed Moscow.
The phrase in comparison to is more often used than in comparison with, but by comparison with is more frequent than by comparison to:
The film is utterly benign in comparison to some of the more violent movies of today.
The standard is pitiable in comparison with other countries.
By comparison with North Sea oil production, it is a drop in the ocean.
Essentially, both with and to are correct prepositions to use after compare, comparable, or comparison, although it may be worth checking the regional and grammatical context of the sentence when making your choice.

which / that
 Many get confused in the right use of which and that. We find that changing which to that can totally change the meaning of a sentence.
Consider the following examples.
1.     My car, which is red, goes very fast.
2.     My car that is red goes very fast.
The first sentence tells us that I have just one car, and it is red. The clause which is red provides extra information, but it doesn’t change the meaning of the sentence.
The second sentence indicates that I have more than one car, and among my cars the red-coloured car goes very fast.
The phrase that is red is called a Restrictive Clause because another part of the sentence (My car) depends on it. We cannot remove that clause without changing the meaning of the sentence.
The first sentence using which just informs that my car is red. We can remove the clause which is red without missing any important information. The phrase which is red is called a Non- Restrictive Clause.
My car, which is red, goes very fast.

My car goes very fast.